Bureaucracy Group


Indonesia

By Gabriel A. Almond, The Bureaucracy is included in Institutional Group
Bureaucracy in administrative science literature, is often used in some sense. At least there are seven terms contained in the terms of bureaucracy, namely:

  • Rational organization (rational organization)
  • Inefficiency of the organization (organizational inefficiency)
  • Government officials (rule by official)
  • Public administration (public administration)
  • Administration officials (administration by official)
  • Form of organization with the characteristics and qualities such as hierarchy and rules.
  • An essential feature of modern society (an essential quality of modern society).

Bureaucracy is the entire government organization that runs the state duties in the various organizational units of government departments and agencies under non-departmental agencies, both at central and regional levels, such as provinces, counties and districts, even at sub-district or village level.

The existence of two myths in the Western political system of the bureaucracy.
The first considers the bureaucracy as a source of evil. Harold J. Laski in the Encyclopedia of the Social Science described the bureaucracy as a disseminator of routine administration, to sacrifice flexibility for the rigid rules, delaying the decision-making process and reject the experiment.
The second myth assumes the role of bureaucracy run hero. Max Weber is a leading proponent of this view. He stated that the bureaucracy is able to achieve the highest level of efficiency and the most rational form of administration because the bureaucracy is managing control through knowledge.

Characteristics of bureaucracy according to Weber:

  1. Administrative office organized / arranged in a hierarchical manner (Administratice offices are organized hierarchically).
  2. Each office has its own area of competence (Each office has its own area of competence).
  3. Public servants are determined, not selected, based on engineering qualifications which is shown by diploma or exam (Civil cervants are appointed, not electe, on the basis of technical Qualifications Diplomas or as determined by examination).
  4. Civil servants receive a salary fixed in accordance with their rank or position (receive fixed Salaries Civil Servants According to rank).
  5. Work is a limited career, or in essence, his work as civil servants (The job is a career and the sole, or at least primary, employment of the civil servant).
  6. Officials did not have their own offices (The official does not own his or her office).
  7. Officials as subject to control and discipline (the official is subject to control and dicipline).
  8. Promotion is based on consideration of capacity that exceeds the average (Promotion is based on superiors judgment).

Bureaucracy as an organization with specific characteristics, the center of the attention of various social science disciplines as Max Weber services. In his work The Theory of Economy and Social Organization, Weber expressed his concept of the ideal type of bureaucracy to formulate the basic characteristics of bureaucratic organizations that are better suited to modern society, namely:

  1. The existence of a hierarchical structure that involves the delegation of authority from top to bottom in the organization (a hierarcical structure involving delegation of authority from the top to the bottom of an organization).
  2. The existence of these positions or positions that have duties and responsibilities of the firm (a series of official position offices, each having prescribed duties and responsibility).
  3. The rules, regulations and standards governing the operation of formal organization and behavior of its members (formal rules, regulations and standards governing operation of the organization and behavior of its members).
  4. Presence of personnel who are technically qualified, employed on the basis of a career, a promotion based on qualifications and performance (technically qualified personnel employed an a career basis, with promotion based on qualification and performance).

Weberisasi is a program to direct the bureaucracy to become a development tool that works in an efficient, rational, professional and service oriented society (public service).

Parkinsonisasi is the policy of the bureaucracy set up to enlarge the quantitative figure of bureaucracy.

Orwellisasi shown to support the enlargement of the figure of the state vis a vis the public, and in turn can enhance the capabilities of the regulatory state.

Jaksonisasi. Efforts to become bureaucratic as the accumulation of state power and rid society of political and administrative space, forming what is called by Karl D. Jackson (1980) as bureaucraty polity.

Associated with bureaucracy, there are some strategies:

  • Core strategy, which is a strategy that has clear objectives and associated with the primary function of government, namely the control.
  • A consequence strategies, ie strategies that force their employees to obey all the rules set.
  • Customer strategy, a strategy that prioritizes the accountability of the bureaucracy.
  • Control strategies, the strategy that puts the power / authority to make decisions, which are generally associated with power is always top of the hierarchy. This strategy encourages the power of decision-makers were significantly reduced based on the principle of hierarchy that will eventually come to the public.
  • Cultural strategy, the strategy that influenced the above four strategies are meant to change the culture of the four strategies that will change as well.

There is a mistaken notion about the bureaucracy that is:

  1. Organizational inefficiencies
  2. Authority officials
  3. Administration in the state organization
  4. Modern society
  5. Rational organization (Max Weber)

Hegel the concept of the three groups in society over the desire should be positioned in the middle of the bureaucracy as an intermediary between the public interest in this case represented the country with groups of employers and the profession of special interest groups. So in this bureaucracy, according to Hegel should be neutral.

Another concept of bureaucracy is from Wilson (1887) and Goodnow (1901). Both expressed the need to separate the administration with the direction politics is to keep each duty and function properly. Administration as an agency policy implementation, is political as policy-making body. (Muhajir Darwin; 1995)

As a policy implementing agencies, the bureaucracy according to Wilson in connection with the impartiality are beyond politics. So that an administration / bureaucracy just as much about the business and affairs should be separated from politics (the hurry and strife of politics). (Miftah Thoha; 1993)
Politics according to Goodnow had to make and formulate policies, while the administration associated with the implementation of policies. (Miftah Thoha; 1993)

Bureaucracy in Indonesia has a fairly diverse history since independence in 1945.

  1. Beginning of independence, there is a consensus of opinion that the bureaucracy is a good political tool to unite the nation. The only political organization that is primordial that threaten the state and nation of Indonesia is the Indonesian Communist Party (PKI). Their rebellion to control government bureaucracy and simultaneously replace the legitimate government.
  2. Between the years 1950-1959. Plagued by bureaucracy we started strong primordial aspiration. The government bureaucracy began to be coveted than political forces that exist. Political parties begin to look to dominate the government bureaucracy.Government bureaucracy is under the leadership of the political parties that make up the majority in the House institutions. DPR to be strong, but otherwise the Executive agency in which the bureaucracy as a political executive is becoming increasingly weak.
  3. Between the years 1960 to 1965. Bureaucracy became the target of political power there. At that time there were three significant political force that is, nationalist, religious and communist (NASAKOM) who seek to share the power or kaplinganya in various Departments. Under the label of Guided Democracy, the three political forces that build up access to government bureaucracy. G.30 events at the outbreak of S / PKI communist forces had entered almost all government departments, while the nationalist and religious forces dominate only a small portion of the existing departments.
  4. Between 1965 and the New Order. Kepemihakannya the bureaucracy more clearly the dominant political forces, in this case the factors that determine Golkar.Salah Golkar victory in six elections (until 1997) is due to a strong enough role birokarsi. Political-floating mass (the float) to make the bureaucracy can reach out to all corners of the villages in our homeland. So just choose the Golkar bureaucrat bureaucracy synonymous with Golkar.
  5. Habibi era. Conditions of our bureaucracy is not much changed, as all know that rising Habibi replaced Soeharto was fully supported by Golkar.
  6. Gus Dur-Megawati era. Gus Dur’s government prepared on the basis of compromise of almost all the existing political forces that led to what became known as the National Unity Cabinet, in which the ministers who sit in it consist of both major political parties which gain significant votes in the 1999 elections. From this and the discourse of bureaucracy into bloom again.

After independence was obtained, the bureaucracy was transformed as a modern and large organizations in the community who are not familiar in a modern organization.Besides growing bureaucratization in Indonesia such as democracy without due mostly occurring in other developing countries. (Muhajir,: 1996)

There are some basic principles that need to be considered by the organizers of the government and the political elite to the bureaucratic reform agenda did not find a steep road, and was wrapped by the shadow of the eternal guardian of the interests of the surrounding structures.

  1. The principle of regularity attaches to the work pattern should still be considered the quality of bureaucracy, without reducing the burden and the need for structure.
  2. Values and principles which are run by bureaucratic rules we should go hand in hand. In this case, competence and productivity performance can be relied upon and the size, rather than the pursuit of income and salary increases.
  3. Authority and resources of the bureaucracy we have to be able to ensure a pattern of internal quality control, without pressure from outside and through the “trumpet”, which in turn can answer the problem of confidentiality of a problem.
  4. As a pillar of governance, which positioned the complex bureaucratic environment and health policies should not be recognized.

Ideally, the bureaucratic structure that contains the apparatus (echelon) as a resource policy mandate, must be sterile from the partisan political interests, private, and group.

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Menurut Gabriel A. Almond, Kelompok Birokrasi termasuk dalam Kelompok Institutional